A country that grants transit rights may charge a fee for the privilege. The adequacy of these royalties has sometimes been controversial. Air freedom applies to commercial aviation.  :145-146 The terms “freedom” and “right” are an abbreviated form of reference to the nature of international services authorized between two or more countries. 145-146 Although these services are licensed by countries, airlines may continue to face restrictions on access to these services due to contracts or other reasons. 145-146: 19 IASTA allows each Member State to charge “reasonable” fees to foreign airlines for the use of their airports (which probably apply only to second freedom) and “installations”;  According to IATA, these fees should not be higher than the fees charged to domestic airlines offering similar international services.  These fees are normally levied only for the privilege of flying over a country`s territory in the absence of the use of an airport.  (Overflights may continue to use the services of a country`s air traffic control centres). For example, the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S., a signatory to IASTA, calculates e-mail charges of $61.75 per 100 nautical miles (190 km) from the great distance between the point of entry of an aircraft in U.S.-controlled airspace and the point of exit from that airspace.
 In addition, a lower charge – the ocean charge – is calculated ($26.51 per 100 nautical miles (190 km) for flights over international waters where air traffic is controlled by the United States, including parts of the Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean and much of the North Pacific Ocean.  Countries that have not signed IASTA also apply overflight charges; Among them, Russia is known for imposing high fares, especially on the transarretian routes between North America and Asia that cross Siberia.  In 2008, Russia temporarily denied Lufthansa Cargo permission to fly cargo over its airspace, allegedly due to “delays in payment for its overflight rights”.  European airlines pay Russia 300 million euros a year for overflight authorizations.  The 1952 bilateral air services agreement between Japan and the United States was considered particularly controversial because of the granting of unlimited fifth-freedom traffic rights to U.S.-designated air carriers departing from the Asia-Pacific region west of Japan. In the early 1990s, for example, the Japanese government`s refusal to allow flights on the New York City-Osaka-Sydney route sparked protests from U.S. management and airlines seeking proof of the route. The Japanese government responded that only about 10% of the traffic in the Japan-Australia sector was the third and fourth freedom traffic to and from the United States, while the bilateral agreement specified that the main justification for unlimited fifth freedom traffic was to fill aircraft carrying a large portion of U.S. or U.S.
traffic under these rights.